While having a baby is the most beautiful experience parents can go through, there various surgical problems that may arise in new born babies. But in the modern era, there have been many advances with this respect. Management of surgical issues in newborns requires a team of pediatric surgeons, pediatric anesthetist, neonatologist, pediatric neurosurgeons, pediatric cardiac surgeons and pediatric nurses who are specialized to managed babies. Many of these neonates can lead a normal life with proper surgical care.
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Laparoscopy (minimal access surgery) has revolutionized management in newborns with minimal pain, less invasion and quick recovery. A pediatric surgeon operates on these babies, to give them scope for a good quality of life.
Tracheo-oesophageal fistula is a common condition in India where a child is born with incompletely formed food pipe (oesophagus). A well-equipped newborn intensive care unit is required for a fair outcome. A pediatric surgeon can fix this by operating on one or two-day old child. Thoracoscopic (minimal invasive surgery through chest) surgery can be performed in these infants.
Diaphragmatic hernia is a condition where a muscle involved in respiration has a hole in it, through which the gut goes in the chest. Once the baby is stable, this can be fixed by either an open surgery or thoracoscopically. Survival in thoracoscopy has improved over the last 10 years in India, thanks to better medical and surgical care.
India also has the largest number of babies with Anorectal Malformations, where the anus is not formed. These are commonly managed in three stages of surgery. Stage one includes opening the gut on skin of tummy, temporarily to pass faeces, which is done on the day of birth. Two more stages are done in third month and sixth month. The kids can have a reasonably good life, if all these stages go well.
Necrotising enterocolitis (infection of interesting) is a deadly infection seen in low birth-weight newborns. Many of these may need surgery to remove the dead gut or make temporary storma. Intestinal atresia (defectively formed gut) is a condition where at the gut is either defective with a gap or not formed properly. Surgery yields good results. Laparoscopic repairs are also done. Surgical fixation of new also done. Surgical fixation of new born inguinal hernia should be planned at the earliest because complications are higher; if it gets obstructed.
Recognition of these surgical problems by treating general practitioner, pediatrician and early referral to a pediatric surgeon who operated the new born babies in a good set up is the key to good results.